Some of the main technologies that are currently being used in the clinic or are under development include the following (Figure 1): Open in a separate window Figure 1 Overview scheme of main pathogen detection systems. most profitable ones. Extreme circumstances demand a vehement response, and any profit losses may well pay dividends going forward. Here, we summarize the developing technologies destined to face the current and future health challenges derived from infectious diseases and discuss which ones have more possibilities of being implemented. 2 or SARS-CoV-2 (worldwide). However, the most striking infections [2] might divert the attention of public health authorities KAG-308 from other lethal infectious diseases with epidemic potential. In developed countries, emerging infections are adding to the risks associated with an aging population affected by chronic diseases and more susceptible to infectious diseases. By contrast, in developing countries, infectious diseases add to problems like limited financial resources, malnutrition and poorly controlled use of antimicrobial drugs. To make the scenario worse, drug resistance is emerging in many bacterial pathogens, such as spp., Salmonellae, and spp. Indeed, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the main challenges of global concern for human health. For example, multidrug resistance has been estimated to cause about 29,000 deaths in the United States each yr, leading to a health Rabbit Polyclonal to PKCB1 care cost KAG-308 of more than $4.7 billion [3]. In Europe, the estimate is over 33,000 deaths, with a cost of $1.5 billion in direct and indirect costs [4]. Nonetheless, the biggest problem happens in developing countries, in which infectious diseases (including gastrointestinal, respiratory, sexually transmitted, and nosocomial infections) remain the best cause of illness and death. Moreover, the average income in these countries is very low, therefore limiting access to expensive therapies. In these countries, antimicrobial resistance is likely related to improper antibiotic prescription together with limited diagnostic facilities, inadequate patient education, unregulated sale of antimicrobials, and common nonhuman use of these substances, among others [5]. Recent advances in fundamental scientific research, together with the development of molecular biology techniques, have not only improved infectious disease analysis, but have also offered relevant data about pathogenesis and epidemiology. As such, technology offers the necessary tools for appropriate disease prevention and control. However, the progress KAG-308 made in this field over the past century is now facing a new challenge. The available techniques for disease detection and treatment must be adapted to deal with global health problems. In response to this challenge, several molecular assays have been developed to address pathogen detection and quantitation with high level of sensitivity and specificity. These include, for instance, some nucleic acid-based detection methods that show a high level of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, effectiveness, and versatility [6]. Another element to consider is that the rising antimicrobial resistance and the heightened risk of viral pandemics might contribute to the improved incidence of bacterial infections. For example, the scarce data available to day display that some coronavirus individuals (1% to 10%) contract secondary KAG-308 bacterial infections [7]. On the other hand, the increase in hygiene methods may, at least in the beginning, limit the spread of different microbes, including antibiotic resistant KAG-308 pathogens. However, a more frequent use of biocides may favor antibiotic resistance selection in the long-term due to cross-resistance. The antimicrobial resistance problems has been further complicated from the dearth in the development and commercialization of novel antibiotics. For instance, only 11 fresh antimicrobials have been authorized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) since 2017 [8]. With this scenario, it will be essential to promote global initiatives aimed at delivering new compounds that can effectively alternative or complement the current therapeutics. Overall, to break the vicious circle of resistance, it will be necessary to implement enhanced stewardship plans and design novel, effective antimicrobials. Also, disease risk assessment will help to determine which areas require a higher effort from the public health system to minimize the weakness of the population in the near future. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the research intended to palliate.