Further smartly designed and conducted animal randomized control trials (RCTs) will help us to generate high level of scientific evidence much like human RCTs. In summary, although selected studies showed dental care stem cells have amazing potential for use in bone regeneration, further well designed preclinical studies addressing optimal differentiating factors, culture medium, critical sized defect model, comparison of osteogenic potential of different dental care progenitor cells, biological activity, cost effectiveness, efficacy, and safety of dental care stem cells are required before clinical translation. 5. is used to design this search strategy). Table 3 The details and quantity of studies included in this qualitative review. TCP= 10?= 62 107 to TCPTCPTCP2?wkTCP8?wkHistologyMature bone formation seen is seen with SCID. Open in a separate window (g) Dental care pulp derived stem cells (DPSCSs) from deciduous/permanent teeth galactosideALP assay= 18/65), the number of animals were simply not reported anywhere in the methodology, results, or conversation sections. Reporting the number of animals is essential to replicate the experiments or to reanalyze the data. Furthermore, 63 of 65 studies did not mention how the sample size was chosen. Determining sample size by power size or simple calculations help to design an animal research with an appropriate number of animals to detect a biologically important effect [28C32]. We cannot rule out that this researchers may have calculated/determined the number of animals but did not statement that in the article. However, reporting omission can be very easily rectified, as incomplete reporting means potentially flawed research [28]. In vitro preclinical research is the basic foundation for any new therapeutic approach. Although it may not replicate a dynamic environment, in vitro research provides valuable information for future research actions. The methodological quality analysis of the selected in vitro articles revealed the possibility of selection bias. Most of the articles lacked randomization, blinding, sample size calculation, and repetition of the experiments. This affects the scientific validity of experimental results. Although CONSORT guidelines are designed to be used in RCTs, we found it reasonable to apply these guidelines to in vitro studies to emphasize the quality and importance of avoiding bias in reporting or in research, because all phases of research process are interlinked [26, 28, 32]. An inadequate sample size might statement incorrect results, which could eventually result in failed animal studies or clinical trials. Comparing the overall performance of dental stem cells with autologous bone grafts or adipose-derived MSCs or BMMSCs will be an interesting approach. Immune modulation house shown by most of the dental stem cells may provide a solution for graft rejection. To date few clinical cases of bone tissue engineering used dental stem cells [9, 22, 24]. The main reason for the slow progress is attributed to the IMPG1 antibody extrapolation of end result from preclinical studies. Based on our observation with the selected literatures and guidelines [26C32, 60], we believe that animal study design Fatostatin Hydrobromide should include well defined inclusion and exclusion criteria (study establishing), a period to test the participating animals short term ability to adhere to the experimental/treatment regimen (run in period), process of random allocation of animals to the different study groups (randomization), reporting of baseline characteristics (age, sex, and excess weight) for the all animals in the Fatostatin Hydrobromide experimental and control group, animal housing conditions, blinding in end result assessment and data analyses, clear reporting of quantity of animals enrolled, followed up, and any addition or quantity of animals decreased out (attrition), disclosing any adverse effects to the animals during and after intervention/experiment, reporting sample size and methods used to do sample size calculation, and reporting confidence interval Fatostatin Hydrobromide in addition to value (for the effect estimate and precision). These parameters will minimize the risk of confounding and selection bias. It also ensures that the.