HUC-MSC can also indirectly play the role of treating heart diseases by regulating the expression of miRNA, lncRNA, and circRNA [10C12]. In summary, HUC-MSCs perform a therapeutic function in heart-related diseases by the following mechanisms: (1) differentiation into cardiomyocytes to improve heart function, (2) differentiation into vascular endothelial cells to promote angiogenesis and blood supply, (3) improvement of cardiac performance by inhibiting myocardial cell apoptosis, (4) anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activity through paracrine effects, and (5) regulating the expression levels of miRNAs, lncRNAs, and circRNAs involved in cardiac repair. terminal cells, immune regulation, paracrine effects, anti-inflammatory effects, anti-fibrotic effects, and regulating non-coding RNA. These characteristics of HUC-MSCs are discussed in the context of diabetes and its complications, liver disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, arthritis, brain injury and cerebrovascular diseases, heart diseases, spinal cord injury, respiratory diseases, viral infections, and other diseases. The second part emphasizes the need to establish an HUC-MSC cell bank, discusses tumorigenicity of HUC-MSCs and the characteristics of different in vitro generations of these cells in the treatment of diseases, and provides technical and theoretical support for the clinical applications of HUC-MSCs. Conclusion HUC-MSCs can treat a variety of diseases clinically and have achieved good therapeutic effects, and the development of HUC-MSC assistive technology has laid the foundation for its clinical application. Keywords: Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, Clinical application, Therapy Introduction HUC-MSCs are self-renewing and multipotent. They can continuously proliferate and differentiate under specific conditions into one or more cell types that constitute human tissues and organs. They affect immune responses and can be easily harvested, separated, cultured, expanded, and purified. HUC-MSCs retain the stemness after multiple passages and expansion. The surface antigens of HUC-MSCs are not prominent, the rejection of transplanted cells is insignificant, and the matching requirements are not strict, facilitating their use in allografts [1C3]. At present, HUC-MSCs are used in the treatment of various diseases. They have several distinct properties essential for their therapeutic applications. (1) Differentiation: the generation of differentiated cells by HUC-MSCs promotes tissue regeneration and improves tissue function [4, 5]. (2) Immune regulation: HUC-MSCs inhibit the proliferation of immune cells, such as T cells, B cells, and Tfh cells; induce the differentiation of macrophages from pro-inflammatory phenotypes to anti-inflammatory phenotypes; and reduce inflammation by secreting interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). Together, these modifications of immune responses facilitate tissue repair [5]. (3) Paracrine effects: HUC-MSCs promote tissue regeneration by secreting soluble molecules such as keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), epidermal growth factor C-178 (EGF), and other cytokines [5C7]. (4) Anti-inflammatory effect: HUC-MSCs suppress the secretion of inflammatory factor interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-), and interleukin-8 (IL-8), reducing inflammation and oxidative stress, thus suppressing cell apoptosis [8, 9]. (5) Anti-fibrotic activity: HUC-MSCs stimulate fibrosis-related cell apoptosis and the secretion of HGF C-178 and other molecules. The anti-fibrotic function can also be mediated C-178 by the regulation of related signaling pathways and the promotion of vascular remodeling. (6) Non-coding RNA regulation: HUC-MSCs can affect the expression of CTG3a microRNA (miRNA), long non-coding (lncRNA), and circular RNA (circRNA), indirectly regulating their target genes and achieving therapeutic effects [10C12]. Currently, HUC-MSCs are accustomed to treat a lot more than ten types of illnesses, and major healing breakthroughs have already been attained with these cells. Within this review, we will summarize the progress in the use of HUC-MSCs over the last 5?years, with the aim of guiding further analysis and clinical applications (Fig.?1, Desk S1). Open up in another window Fig. 1 Clinical systems and application of action of HUC-MSCs. This amount depicts the usage of HUC-MSCs in the treating various illnesses such as for example diabetes and its own complications, liver illnesses, systemic lupus erythematosus, arthritis, human brain damage and cerebrovascular disease, center illnesses, spinal cord damage, respiratory illnesses, viral attacks, and various other illnesses Main text Program of HUC-MSCs in scientific treatment Program of HUC-MSCs in diabetes and its own complications Diabetes is normally several metabolic illnesses seen as a hyperglycemia caused by inadequate insulin secretion, impaired response to insulin, or both [13]. Clinically, two types of diabetes are regarded: type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 insulin-independent diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T1DM is normally seen as a a low degree of insulin and C-peptide because of C-178 the impairment of islet cell function, while T2DM is normally from the decrease in insulin receptor awareness. It’s been shown that HUC-MSCs injected in diabetic pets may house to pancreatic islets and intravenously.